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  • Page 383 (6 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 1st, 2015

      Eduard von Engerth (1818-97) was an Austrian historical portrait painter. He was born at Pless, Prussian Silesia, and studied under Leopold Kupelwieser at the Vienna Academy, where, in 1845, he obtained the grand prize and the imperial stipend attached to it. In 1854 he was appointed director of the Prague Academy; in 1865, professor at the Vienna Academy; in 1871, director of the Belvedere Gallery, and in 1874 rector of the Academy. His most celebrated picture is entitled “Seizure of King Manfred’s Family After the Battle of Benevento” (Art Museum, Vienna).

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 1st, 2015

      Adolf Eybel (1808-1882), a German painter of historical and genre subjects and of portraits, was born at Berlin. He studied at the Berlin Academy, and under Professor Kolbe, as well as in Paris under Delaroche. One of his most noted pictures represents Richard Coeur-de-Lion with his Court listening to Blondel’s Song.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 1st, 2015

      Johann Peter Krafft (1780 – 1856) was a German-Austrian painter.Krafft was born in Hanau, Hesse. At the age of ten, he began his art studies at the Hanau Akademie. In 1799, he moved to Vienna and studied at the Academy of Fine Arts for three years under the tutelage of Heinrich Füger. From 1802 to 1808, he studied in Paris, with Jacques-Louis David and François Gérard, and then in Rome. On his return to Vienna, he became a successful professional painter, producing numerous portraits.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 1st, 2015

       

      Johann Baptist Hoechle

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 1st, 2015

      Jan Matejko (also known as Jan Mateyko; 1838 – 1893) was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events. His most famous works include oil on canvas paintings like Battle of Grunwald, paintings of numerous other battles and court scenes, and a gallery of Polish kings. He is counted among the most famous Polish painters.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 1st, 2015

      Great quote–particuarly when you consider that his son is going to grow up to become a founder of the Cleveland Museum of Art.

  • Page 546 (3 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on August 12th, 2015

      “The Last Days of Pompeii” is a novel written by the baron Edward Bulwer-Lytton in 1834 inspired by the painting “The Last Days of Pompeii” by the Russian painter Karl Briulloy which Bulwer-Lytton had seen in Milan.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on August 12th, 2015

      RPW was part owner of a jewelry store in Cleveland Hogan & Wade (spoon in WRHS Collection)

       

      Comment by Holly Witchey on August 12th, 2015

      Did RPW go in or not? Probably not on this visit but they spent a great deal of time in Naples.  We’ll never know.

       

  • Page 680 (3 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on January 5th, 2016

      Franklin Bachelder Simmons (January 11, 1839 – December 8, 1913)

      Comment by Holly Witchey on January 5th, 2016

      Daniel Adams Butterfield (October 31, 1831 – July 17, 1901) was a New York businessman, a Union General in the American civil war, and Assistant U.S. Treasurer.   His father was the co-founder of American Express.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on January 5th, 2016

      Milton’s Paradise Lost (1667)

      passage from Book V
      Had audience; when among the Seraphim
      Abdiel, than whom none with more zeal adored
      The Deity, and divine commands obeyed

      passage from Book V
      So spake the Seraph Abdiel, faithful found
      Among the faithless, faithful only he;

  • Page 323 (3 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on February 28th, 2015

      A hip roof, hiproof or hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip_roof) Retrieved 2/28/15

      Comment by Holly Witchey on February 28th, 2015

      “Digger Indians” is a derogatory term used to refer to Indians (primarily of California and the Western Plateau).   The term seems to refer to the fact that they dug roots in order to survive.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on February 28th, 2015

      Digger Indians

      Digger Indians, term indiscriminately applied to many Native Americans of the central plateau region of W North America, including tribes in Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, and central California. The name is supposedly derived from the fact that they dug roots for food. It has no ethnological significance and was a term of opprobrium.

      The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

  • Page 382 (3 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 1st, 2015

      Balthasar Denner (1685-1749) was a German painter, highly-regarded as a portraitist. He painted mostly half-length and head-and-shoulders portraits and a few group portraits of families in interiors.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 1st, 2015

      Adriaen van der Werff (1659 – 1722) was an accomplished Dutch painter of portraits and erotic, devotional and mythological scenes. His brother, Pieter van der Werff (1661–1722), was his principal pupil and assistant.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 1st, 2015

      Philipp Ferdinand de Hamilton

  • Page 428 (3 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 30th, 2015

      Comments made by appraiser Arlie Sulka, Appraiser. (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/archive/200705A43.html)  The name of the company that produced these glasses was called Theresienthal, and the company was established in 1836 by Franz Steigerwald, and one of the reasons why the company was established is that the king wanted to make glassware in his own country. He didn’t like the idea that they were importing glassware from other foreign factories, so he was very supportive of Steigerwald at the time.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 30th, 2015

      In 1825 artist J. M. Hermann opened a gallerie in Munich to sell his works.  At Hermann’s death in 1841 the gallery was taken over by his daugther and her husband Heinrich Wimmer.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 30th, 2015

      RPW there on the recommends of other notable Clevelanders who had purchased works from the gallery.

  • Page 467 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015

      Thomas Ball (1819 – 1911) was an American artist and musician. His work has had a marked influence on monumental art in the United States, especially in New England.  After several odd jobs to help support his family he spent three years working at the Boston Museum entertaining the visitors by drawing portraits, playing the violin, and singing. He then became an apprentice for the museum wood-carver Abel Brown. He taught himself oil painting by copying prints and casts in the studio of the museum superintendent. Transcript. He then turned his attention to sculpture, his earliest work being a bust of Jenny Lind. At thirty-five he went to Florence for study. There, with an interval of work in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1857—1865, he remained for more than thirty years, being one of the artistic colony which included Robert and Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Hiram Powers

      Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015

      Thomas Ridgeway Gould (1818 – November 26, 1881) was an American sculptor active in Boston and Florence.

      Gould was born in Boston. He was at first a merchant with his brother in the dry-goods business, but studied sculpture under Seth Wells Cheney starting in 1851 and in 1863 exhibited two large heads of Christ and Satan at the Boston Athenæum. As a result of the American Civil War, he lost his moderate fortune, and in 1868 moved with his family to Florence, Italy, where he devoted himself to study and work. His “West Wind”, originally sculpted in 1870, stirred controversy in 1874 when it was denounced as a copy of Canova’s Hebe, with the exception of the drapery, which was modelled by Signor Mazzoli.

  • Page 452 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015

      Should read “Lenovo” not “Nenovo.”

      Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015

      Basilica San Zeno Maggiore

  • Page 470 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015

      Randall re-titles Hart’s work  underneath the photograph on this page.  RPW feels “Morning glories” is more apt than Rose Bud.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015

      A sculpture based on a figure from an Musidora, from ‘The Seasons’ by James Thomson (1700-48) (coloured engraving), Hamilton, William (1751-1801) (after) / Anglesey Abbey, Cambridgeshire, UK / The Fairhaven Collection National Trust Photographic Library/Angelo Hornak / The Bridgeman Art Library

  • Page 447 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015

      Säben

      Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015

      Bolzano, Ger. Bozen on the Isarco River near its confluence with the Adige. It is the center of the German-speaking part of S Tyrol and is a tourist and health resort noted for its Alpine scenery and mild climate. Its position on the Brenner road has made it the chief commercial center of the area since the Middle Ages, when important fairs were held there.  Bolzano was part of the bishopric of Trent from the 11th cent. until the 16th cent., when it was ceded to the Hapsburgs. It then followed the fortunes of Tyrol  and was awarded to Italy in 1919.

  • Page 396 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 3rd, 2015

      Johann Strauss II (1825 – 1899), also known as Johann Baptist Strauss or Johann Strauss, Jr., the Younger, or the Son , was an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas. He composed over 500 waltzes, polkas, quadrilles, and other types of dance music, as well as several operettas and a ballet. In his lifetime, he was known as “The Waltz King”, and was largely then responsible for the popularity of the waltz in Vienna during the 19th century.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 3rd, 2015

      Unclear, perhaps the Theodore Thomas Orchestra

  • Page 398 (2 comments)

  • Page 438 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on June 26th, 2015

      RPW compares the Munich City Museum to Barnum’s activities.   Barnum’s American Museum in NYC burned down in 1868 and Bernum moved into traveling exhibitions.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on June 26th, 2015

      Wilhelm von Kaulbach (15 October 1805, Bad Arolsen, Waldeck – 7 April 1874) was a German painter, noted mainly as a muralist, but also as a book illustrator. His murals decorate buildings in Munich. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.  (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_von_Kaulbach)

  • Page 437 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on June 26th, 2015

      Carl Gottlieb Merkel (1817 – 1897)

      Carl Millner (1825-1895) was born in Mindelheim Germany in 1825.   At age 26 he moved to Munich to pursue his interest in painting.  While in Munich he was influenced by the heroic landscape style of painting by Carl Rottman.   Millner chose the dramatic high mountain imagery of the Alps as his theme and explored the mountainous terrain.   In 1853 he met Edourd Schleich the elder,  who became an important influence.   Schleich focused on the Munich plains as his subject matter while Millner remained focused on the high Alps.  In 1857 Millner developed a relationship with dealer Daniel Loffel that brought him financial stability. (http://www.askart.com/artist/Carl_Millner/11010263/Carl_Millner.aspx)

       

      “The gallery of Wimmer and Co. has been in existence since 1825, and is probably the best know of its kind in the world.  The members of this firm have acquired such a reputation for probity that orders are sent to them from all parts, leaving subject and price to their taste and judgment.”

      &

      “An extensive collection  of modern pictures on view and for sale can be seen at Van Gelder’s Gallery No. 1 Karolinenplatz.”

      The American Travellers’ Guides: Harper’s  Hand-Book for Travellers in Europe and the East, Vol. II by William Pembroke Fetridge, p. 658

      Comment by Holly Witchey on June 26th, 2015

      Need to check this paragraph against actual journal, something is missing.

  • Page 436 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on June 26th, 2015

      Visit to the Glyptothek.  Randall impressed with the space as an exhibition hall, bemoans the lack of contemporary sculpture. 

      Comment by Holly Witchey on June 26th, 2015

      Archibald Campbell Tait (21 December 1811 – 3 December 1882) was the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1871.

  • Page 419 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 29th, 2015

      Randolph Rogers (1825–Italy) was an American Neoclassical sculptor. An expatriate who lived most of his life in Italy, his works ranged from popular subjects to major commissions, including the Columbus Doors at the U.S. Capitol and American Civil War monuments.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 29th, 2015

      Henry Probasco was a native of Connecticut who went on to become one of the wealthiest citizens of Cincinnati in the mid to late 19th century.  He is best remembered for donating the Tyler Davidson Fountain at Fountain Square (formerly Government Square) and it is this monument to which RPW refers.

  • Page 431 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 30th, 2015

      RPW’s views on the likelihood of the North German Confederation continued.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 30th, 2015

      RPW repeats joke from papers re Ludwig 2nd’s conditions for Union.

  • Page 427 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 29th, 2015

      First English guidebook for a museum

       

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 29th, 2015

      RPW at his most Victorian.  Sigh.

      • Wilhelm von Kaulbach (1805 -1874) was a German painter, noted mainly as a muralist, but also as a book illustrator. His murals decorate buildings in Munich. He is associated with the Düsseldorf school of painting.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_von_Kaulbach) retrieved 14 June 2012)
      • Possibly Frans Josef Luckx  (1802 – 1849)
  • Page 430 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 30th, 2015

      RPW on King Ludwig 2nd and Wagner.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 30th, 2015

      During the [Franco Prussian] war, in November 1870, the North German Confederation and the south German states of Bavaria, Württemberg, and Baden (together with parts of the Grand Duchy of Hesse which had not originally joined the confederation) united to form a new nation state. It was originally called Deutscher Bund (German Confederation), but on 10 December 1870 the Reichstag of the North German Confederation adopted the name Deutsches Reich (German Realm or German Empire) and granted the title of German Emperor to the King of Prussia as President of the Confederation.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_German_Confederation, retrieved March 30, 2015)

  • Page 418 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 29th, 2015

      RPW is referring to The International Exposition of 1867, called the “Exposition universelle [d’art et d’industrie] de 1867” was the second world’s fair to be held in Paris, from April to November 1867

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 29th, 2015

      Visit to  Royal Bronze Foundry in Munich 

  • Page 017 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on October 4th, 2014

      1) Although Randall seemed to have had good luck Bowles Brothers & Co the company declared bankruptcy less than three years later.  Information taken from NY Times article dated Dec. 8, 1872 which recorded notes of the London bankruptcy proceedings.

      2) Possibly Drexel, Harjes & Co a Paris-based banking firm founded in 1867

      3)Brown Bros. & Co. was an investment bank founded in Philadelphia in 1818.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on October 4th, 2014

      Mrs. George Parsons was the daughter of an Ohio Attorney, Gustavus Swan, and wife of Mr. George Parsons, also an attorney.  Columbus School for Girls eventually leased the “Parson’s Place” their Georgian Home located at East Town Street and Parsons Avenue.

  • Page 484 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on July 10th, 2015

      Lavinia Ellen Ream Hoxie (September 25, 1847 – November 20, 1914) was an American sculptor. Her most famous work was the statue of Abraham Lincoln in the U.S. Capitol rotunda.  First and youngest woman to receive an art commission from the Federal Government (she was 18).  (wikipedia, retrieved July 11, 2015) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinnie_Ream

      Comment by Holly Witchey on July 10th, 2015

      Batterson’s Gettysburg Monument – Artist: Rogers, Randolph, sculptor; Batterson, James Goodwin, designer; Keller, George W., designer.

      Dedicated: July 1, 1869 (Cornerstone laid July 4, 1865)

  • Page 337 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on February 28th, 2015

      A fine example of American hubris, RPW compares Milan cathedral to the Euclid Avenue footprint for the two Wade homes.

      Comment by Holly Witchey on February 28th, 2015

      Wade Homes Euclid Avenue

  • Page 911 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 14th, 2017

      Just a couple of years later, in 1873, the peripatetic Mr. Peebles was in New Zealand, having visited Melbourne and Dunedin giving papers on spiritualism.  An article reviewing his presentation “Spiritualism, What is It? Who Believes in It?” noted that 250 attended.   MR PEEBLES ON SPIRITUALISM.,Press, Volume XXI, Issue 2358, 24 February 1873

       

      (http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/CHP18730224.2.22)

      Comment by Holly Witchey on March 14th, 2017

      Here Randall is referring to the controversial J. Marion Sims (1813-1883) sometimes referred to as the “Father of Modern Gynecology.”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Marion_Sims

  • Page 041 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on December 29th, 2015

      Charles the Bald (823-877)  was the King of West Francia, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor

      Comment by Holly Witchey on December 29th, 2015

      Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich (1773-1859)

  • Page 044 (2 comments)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on October 8th, 2014

      The Marksburg is a fortress above the town of Braubach in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the only medieval castle of the Middle Rhine that has never been destroyed. It is one of the principal sites of the UNESCO World Heritage Rhine Gorge.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marksburg

      Comment by Holly Witchey on October 8th, 2014

      According to Karl Baedeker’s 1861 “A Handbook for Travellers on the Rhine, from Switzerland to Holland,”  this should be Thurnberg or Deurenburg, p. 163

       

      Text beginning “was derisively…” is lifted completely from the 1861 Baedeker’s p. 163.

  • Page 475 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on July 9th, 2015

      The Peverada is mentioned in Murray’s 1871 travel guide to Tuscany by John Murray and Octavian Blewitt

  • Page 657 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on January 2nd, 2016

      Named from Doctor Thomas Dover, an English physician of the eighteenth century who first prepared it, the powder was an old preparation of powder of ipecacuanha (which is currently used to produce syrup of ipecac), opium in powder, and potassium sulfate. The powder was largely used in domestic practice to induce sweating, to defeat the advance of a “cold” and at the beginning of any attack of fever. It was also known by the name pulvis ipecacuanhae et opii.

  • Page 659 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on January 4th, 2016

      “I never felt so fervently thankful, so soothed, so tranquil, so filled with blessed peace as I did yesterday when I learned Michelangelo was dead.” – Mark Twain from Innocents Abroad

      Even popularity can be overdone. In Rome, along at first, you are full of regrets that Michelangelo died; but by and by you only regret that you didn’t see him do it. – Pudd’nhead Wilson’s Calendar

  • Page 432 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on March 30th, 2015

      Not really the kind of joke one expects an 11 year old to make.

  • Page 491 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on July 10th, 2015

      Daniel P. Rhodes 1814-1875 He was a member of Cleveland’s first School Board. It was said that he did more than any other man to develop Cleveland west of the Cuyahoga River.  He was the father-in-law of Marcus Hanna. Rhodes & Co. became the Hanna Mining Co. after Daniel’s son, James Ford Rhodes, sold it to his brother-in-law, Marcus Hanna, in 1885.

  • Page 691 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on February 20th, 2016

      Prince Umberto and Princess Margherita (the eponymous pizza is supposed to have been named in her honor)

  • Page 693 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on February 20th, 2016

      This question mark is inserted by Wade.  He wondered, I bet, as I am, how the stairs got transported from Jerusalem to Rome although they are supposed to have been brought back by Emperor Constantine’s mother St. Helena in the 4th century.

  • Page 654 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on January 2nd, 2016

      A general term for being “on the right side” of any question.   Feminist Victoria Woodhull used it as follows:

      “Society permits a woman to have a dozen men, legally, in as many years, and she is all right. She’s sound on the Goose Question. But if a woman live with her sexual mate without the payment of the [marriage license] fee, she is all wrong; she is a prostitute. And this is called purity, called morality! I say damn such morals.”

      However, here’s a contemporary explanation of the term, from “Chronicles of Secessia,” published in Continental Monthly , Vol I, Issue I, January 1862:

      ‘Sound on the Goose Question.’

      Who is there among our readers who has not heard that phrase? It has now for some years been transferred from one political topic to another, until its flavor of novelty is well-nigh gone. But whence the expression? An antiquarian would probably hint at the geese whose sound saved Rome. The great goose question of the Reformation was the burning of one Huss, whose name in English signifyeth Goose, for which reason he is said to have exclaimed to his tormentors ‘Now ye indeed roast a goose, but, lo! after me there will come a swan whom ye can not roast;’ which was strangely fulfilled in Luther, whose name-slightly varied-signifies in Bohemian a swan. But, reader, ‘an it please you,’ here is the original and ‘Simon Pure’ explanation, as furnished by a correspondent:-

      ‘Are you right on the goose question?’ But do you know the origin of the phrase? It was told to me, at Harrisburg, in Pennsylvania, when I was there in “Fremont’s time,” anno 1856. Alas! the fates deal hardly with Fremont. C. and F., now a satellite of C., helped to slaughter him once before in Pennsylvania-sold him out to Know-Nothings. Hope they haven’t now in Missouri pitched him over to be succeeded by Do-Nothings. But to the story. Harrisburg has wide, clean, brick sidewalks. Many of the poorer sort there kept geese years ago, and sold or ate their progeny in the days of November and December-the “embers of the dying year.” Jenkins was up for constable. The question whether geese should run at large was started. The Harrisburg geese made at times bad work on the clean sidewalks, as do their examplars, spitting on the pave of Broadway. A delegation of the geese-owners waited on Jenkins. Seeing that they had many votes, he declared himself in favor of the geese running at large. The better sort of people, who were in favor of clean sidewalks, hearing of this, set up an opposition candidate, who avowed himself opposed to having the sidewalks fouled by these errant fowls. The canvass waxed warm; a third candidate took the field; he put himself in the hands of an astute “trainer” for the political fray. We don’t know whether or not this was before the day when Mr. Cameron counseled in politics at Harrisburg, but his Mentor bid this new candidate, when the delegations applied for his views on the all-absorbing issues, to say nothing himself, but to refer to him, the Mentor aforesaid. And when the delegations accordingly came to Mentor to find the position of the third candidate, he said to each, with unction, “You will find my friend sound on the goose question.” Third candidate was elected. His story got wind, and from that day till Bull Run all the politicians of the land have striven likewise to be ‘sound on the goose question.’

      Therefore let us be duly thankful that the time hath come when it shall no longer advantage a man to say, ‘Lo! I am sound,’ or-as Prince Albert was reported to reply constantly to his royal consort during the early years of their marriage-‘I dinks joost as you dinks,’-since in these-days vigorous acts and not quibbling words are the only coin which shall pass current in politics.

      Retrieved 10-11-12: http://h-net.msu.edu/cgi-bin/logbrowse.pl?trx=vx&list=h-slavery&month=0609&week=a&msg=%2BDkZvGAqLbkkIGfCed0JTg&user=&pw=

  • Page 563 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on August 29th, 2015

      Possibly Flora Deshler (1847 – 1910)

      Chlorodyne was the name for one of the most famous patent medicines sold in the British Isles. It was invented in the 19th century by a Dr. Collis Browne and its original purpose was in the treatment of cholera—but it was advertised widely (after Brown sold his formula to pharmacist John Thistlewood Davenport) as treatment for all sorts of illnesses. Principal ingredients laudanum (an alcoholic solution of opium), tincture of cannabis, and chloroform

  • Page 474 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015

      The Leopolda railway (Italian: Ferrovia Leopolda) is a line built in the 1840s connecting the Tuscan cities of Florence, Pisa and Livorno via Empoli. Following its restoration of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany after the Congress of Vienna, it was led by the benevolent and efficient house of Lorraine. In 1824 death of Ferdinand III the government of the Grand Duchy passed to his son Leopold II (Italian: “Leopoldo”). The young king was tolerant of liberal ideas, an advocate for important public works and well disposed towards the new technology and private initiative. He approved proposals, formulated in March 1838 by the of Florentine banker Emanuele Fenzi and the Swiss-born contractor Pierre Senn of Livorno to build a railway between Florence and the Port of Livorno. The first genuinely commercially viable Italian railway remained unchanged outside the urban areas of Florence and Livorno until 2006, when a deviation of about 9.5 km between Montelupo Fiorentino and San Donnino was opened to avoid the tortuous (but very scenic when viewed from above) route near the narrow section of Arno valley (known as the Gonfolina). The deviation was authorised in 1995 after a decade of discussion. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopolda_railway  (retrieved 5 July 2012)

  • Page 471 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015

      Euphrosyne Parepa-Rosa (1836 – 1874) was a British operatic soprano who established the Carl Rosa Opera Company together with second husband Carl Rosa

  • Page 468 (1 comment)

    • Comment by Holly Witchey on July 8th, 2015